The foot and ankle


Prof. Dr. C. Niek van Dijk 
Orthopedic surgeon 
Academic Medical Center Amsterdam


The ankle joint is made ​​up of the B ovenste and O nderste S prong joint (abbreviated as BSG and OSG., The bony parts are the tip of the tibia and fibula (ankle fork and the upper tarsal bone that form the BSG., The OSG is formed by the underside of the upper ankle bone and the top side of the lower ankle bone. 
For the stability of the ankle joint, a number of ligaments and muscles responsible, the stabilizers. An important distinction must be made between active and passive stabilizers.

''Bruising and sprain of the ankle are among the most common injuries. Under bruising we mean damage caused by the action of direct violence. A good example of this is a kick in the ankle while playing soccer. The result is usually a blue spot which cures by itself in the line. 
Sprain is turning the place just by the unfortunate placing the foot on an unstable surface, eg the wrong foot on the edge of the curb so that the ankle from collapsing due to lack of support, as it were.The effect of this can be a fracture, sprain, a broken ankle or an ankle ligaments, torn ligaments. We say that the ankle is sprained when the tires are strained (dystorsie). 
The following information about the sprain or twisting the ankle. In medical terms this is calledsupination injuries. When the ankle sprain within 95% of the cases on the outer edge of the foot is to.This creates pressure on the inner ankle and stretch on the outside. This type of sprain is calledinversion injuries. Unless otherwise indicated, all accidents described below relate inversionsprains injuries ie on the outside of the ankle. In exceptional cases, sprains in the opposite direction to the inside. This is called eversion injury.


The sprain of the ankle can cause various injuries: ankle can break the anklets can pull or tear with another word, sprain, or in the worst case (ankle rupture). 
If one suspects that the ankle is broken, the patient should be referred to the emergency room of a hospital. A bloody band usually heals by itself, while a torn ligament or requires treatment. In both cases there shortly after the accident, there is a thick, which is not only painful to investigate properly by a doctor. Physical examination of just a few days after the accident is less than reliable because the ankle swollen and painful. Any bruising (bruises) are visible and the stability of the ankle can be tested. Based on the findings, a treatment will be prescribed. 
Both the determination of the injury setting the treatment can be carried out by the GP.

It often happens that the sprained ankle 'old' is not a cure. Rest Complaints can include regular sprain, pain, stiffness or swelling. Many patients indicate that the inside of the ankle is painful. The cause of this is a cartilage damage caused by collision of joint parts during the accident. The resultant problems are caused by scar and botrichel formation and calcification. This new form projections on the front of the ankle as to be the true clamp down and give a painful limitation of the single function. Other causes for chronic ankle problems are: local cartilage damage, joint mouse joint mucosal inflammation and joint wear.

Other disorders of the leg: